Initially, it was unclear whether EU member states should ratify the agreement, given that the European Commission considered the treaty to fall within the EU`s sole competence.  However, in July 2016, it was decided to qualify CETA as a „mixed agreement“ and thus to be ratified in national proceedings.  In its first decisions in more than 20 years regarding private competition law rights, the Supreme Court of Canada held that indirect purchasers (such as consumers and retailers) had the right to claim damages and refunds in class actions based on alleged competition law infringements. In the consolidated text of CETA, a long section on „intellectual property rights“, IPRs (p. 339-375) deals entirely with copyrights, trademarks, patents, designs, trade secrets and licenses. Reference is made to the TRIPS Agreement (p. 339 f). . . .